Finished Innovation Projects

Here you will find a selection of finished feedstock-technology Innovation projects in which SkyNRG has been involved.

Waste to Wing South Africa– 2018 – 2021

Partners: Fetola Foundation, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and SkyNRG, with funding by Switch Africa Green.

Description: Waste to Wing is a Horizon 2020 project. A first in Africa, the Waste to Wing project aims to prove the feasibility of a waste-based Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) industry in South Africa.

Website project

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Switch Africa Green Programme.

Flying on Forest residues in Småland – Sweden 2018 – 2020

Partners: Södra, KLM, Växjö Kommun, Småland Airport, Fores, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Luleå University of Technology, Växjö Energi, SkyNRG

Description: The Flying on Forest residues in Småland(FFS) project will look into the feasibility of local SAF production in Småland and identify the most promising supply chain set-ups for the area. A quantitative and site-specific analysis of production technologies, including integration opportunities, feedstock supply and logistics, is employed.

BioJet Fuel – Europe

Partners: Wageningen University, Albemarle, Fraunhofer Ummsicht, Lamb Weston/Meijer, Paques, Pervatech, Progression Industry, Utrecht University

Description: The BioJet Fuel project is a project financed by TKI-BBE an international group of companies and knowledge institutions that are investigating whether a full-scale production chain of aviation fuel made from non-edible side streams from the agricultural industry, is technologically feasible and economically interesting.

Forestry to jet project – Sweden

Partners: COWI, Fly Green Fund, SEKAB and Swedavia

Description: The overarching goal of the project is to assess the feasibility and sustainability of a Swedish supply chain converting forestry residues into SAF using, amongst others, SEKAB’s cellulosic sugar/ethanol platform.

Validation and demonstration of forest based bio jet fuel – Sweden – 2018 – 2019

Partners: Luleå University of Technology, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SkyNRG, INERATEC, SCHMIDTSCHE SCHACK | ARVOS, Smurfit Kappa, Sveaskog, Svebio, SAS, BRA, Fly Green Fund

Description: The aim of the “Validation and demonstration of forest based bio jet fuel” project is the construction of a demonstration plant that will produce SAF from black liquor, a residue from the kraft pulping process. The ongoing work in the current step includes the engineering of the plant, developing the business case, and setting up the downstream supply chain.

Renewable Jet Fuel Supply Chain and Flight Operations (RENJET 2) – Europe – 2017 – 2018

Partner: SkyNRG

Description: Renjet 2.0 built on the work done in Renjet 1 (2012-2016). The Renjet 2.0 Scaler project had a very clear focus: get the next phase of the development of the first dedicated European renewable jet fuel production unit financed. We called this production unit a “Direct Supply Line”, as it will turn sustainable feedstocks into jet fuel and supply directly to airlines. The first unit is called DSL-01 (see announcement of the DSL-01 project). Deployment of the DSL production unit concept in Europe in the coming years is the bigger ambition.

Assessment of likely Technology Maturation Pathways (ATM) – (CANADA) 2016 – 2018

Partners:NORAM, The University of British Columbia, The Boeing Company, SkyNRG, Bombardier, WESTJET, CANMET and PNNL

Description: ATM focused on establishing a wider knowledge base on the technical upgrading of wood residue based bio-oils towards SAF. The project is structured in three phases.

  • First, three different bio-oils are sourced. The bio-oils are produced with three different technologies: fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction. The feedstocks are each analysed on their elemental content and characteristics.
  • Two independent research organisations (CANMET and PNNL) will then hydrotreat the three feedstock samples with their own respective technologies and methods.
  • The gathered information will be combined with LCA and Techno-Economic analysis to determine the optimal characteristics needed from both a feedstock and technology point of view to create an ideal, wood residue based, Canadian SAF supply chain.


The project was funded as part of the GARDN program in Canada.

Civil Aviation Alternate Fuel Contrail and Emissions Research (CAAFCER) – Canada – 2016 – 2018

Partners: National Research Council, Air Canada, University of Alberta, SkyNRG and Waterfall Group

Description: CAAFCER will compare SAF fuelled flights with fossil fuelled aircrafts on contrail formation and emission output. Air Canada will fly on an approximate 50% blend of HEFA SAF, engaged in commercial air transport operations from Montreal Trudeau Airport. This aircraft will be followed by NRC’s T-33 aircraft, which is measuring the emissions and contrail formation. The gathered data will be examined, in order to find statistical reduction in contrail ice particle densities, from HEFA SAF, compared to Jet A/A1 fuels. The resulting information will be of great value to understanding and quantifying the environmental benefits of SAF use beyond the parameters currently understood and reported upon.


The project was funded as part of the GARDN program in Canada (2014-2018).

Canada’s SAF Supply Chain Initiative (CBSCI) – Canada – 2016 – 2018

Partners: Waterfall Group, Air Canada, IATA, The Boeing Company, SkyNRG, CAAFI, BioFuelNet, Ascent, Queen’s University, University of Toronto, McGill University

Description: CBSCI demonstrates the operational feasibility of SAF in the domestic jet fuel supply system using existing delivery infrastructure (e.g., co‐mingled airport fuel system). The project will validate Canadian supply chain elements (e.g., quantitative feedstock availability, sustainability certification, fuel integration in the jet fuel supply system, quantify regulatory/fiscal options). CBSCI intends to enable the development of the domestic SAF sector by using HEFA SAF as an enabling mechanism to create market access, drive research, development, and commercialization of advanced biofuel feedstocks and conversion technologies beyond the 2020 timeframe.

Website CBSI

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Canadian Biojet Supply Chain Initiative. The project was funded as part of the GARDN program in Canada.

Project Solaris – South Africa – 2014 – 2016

Partners: Boeing, Sunchem SA, South African Airways

Description: Sunchem SA and SkyNRG have teamed up in 2014 to scale the energy rich tobacco crop “Solaris” in South Africa, supported by South African Airways and Boeing. Solaris is a nicotine and GMO-free crop variety that yields significant amounts of sustainable oil (as feedstock for sustainable SAF fuel) and high quality animal feed. As of September 2015, the cultivation of Solaris has been certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB), ensuring compliance with rigorous environmental and social standards. Starting in Limpopo province, the partners are laying the basis for a new regional SAF fuel supply chain. Through this project they will bring economic and rural development to the region in a sustainable way. In June 2016, SAA performed the first successful flights on the Solaris based jet fuel.

Renewable Jet Fuel Supply Chain and Flight Operations (RENJET 1) – Europe – 2012 – 2016

Partners: SkyNRG, Schiphol Airport, HarverstaGG, Wageningen UR, KLM, Imperial College London and Utrecht University

Description: The RENJET project accelerates the development of sustainable SAF fuel supply chains that may account for 20 per cent of SAF fuel demand in the European Union in 2025. The activities range from selecting and expanding the supply of available feedstock(s), managing stakeholders and conversion steps, support ASTM certification to signing offtake agreements for certified sustainable SAF fuel and defining business models taking all stakeholders into account. SkyNRG is in the lead for structuring the first European sustainable SAF fuel supply chain and has initiated three supply chain partnerships in the EU. Furthermore, SkyNRG is involved in the development of innovative financing mechanisms through for example KLM’s Corporate Biofuel Program and has co-written a European Road Map for SAF under this project.

The Initiative Towards sustAinable Kerosene for Aviation (ITAKA) – Europe – 2012 – 2016

Partners: BIOTEHGEN,Camelina Company España, Neste, RE-CORD, CLH, SkyNRG, Airbus, EADS IW UK, Embraer, SENASA EADS IW France, EPFL and MMU

Description: ITAKA aims to speed up the commercialization of SAF in Europe by analyzing the economic, social, environmental and regulatory implications of large-scale SAF utilization. ITAKA is the first project worldwide that demonstrates the entire value chain for SAF production and the first supported by the EU on this topic and scope. SkyNRG takes the lead for the downstream work package within the ITAKA project: logistics, blending, certification, and into wing fueling. Significant cost reductions where in particular achieved when SkyNRG supplied SAF by using the existing airport fuel infrastructure. This demonstration at Oslo Gardermoen Airport was a world first and can now be replicated in airports worldwide.

Website Itaka

This project has received funding from the European Union’s FP7 program under grant agreement ID 308807 (2012 – 2016).

Voluntary inclusion of renewable jet fuel in the European Union Renewable Energy Directive – 2016

Partners: Boeing

Description: According to the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), each EU member state needs to ensure that, by 2020, 10% of the energy used in the road transport sector comes from renewable energy sources. An amendment to this policy in 2015, opened up the opportunity of using Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) to fulfil a member states’ obligation. This so-called ‘voluntary aviation opt-in’ has already been implemented in Dutch legislation since 2013. However, only since the RED amendment this option   is officially recognized by the EC. This report was prepared by Oskar Meijerink together with Boeing to provide information on how the voluntary aviation opt-in works in the Netherlands and how other EU member states could implement the opt-in into their local RED legislation.

Confidential Road Map to develop SAF in Singapore – 2014 – 2015

Partners: Climate Solutions, Singapore Airlines,

Description: In 2014 SkyNRG created together with Climate Solutions, an extensive SAF Road Map for the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore. The project led to a concrete Road Map towards SAF supply chain development. The Road Map focused on the entire supply chain. For each section of the supply chain; feedstock, conversion technology, logistics, certification and end use, first the local and international stakeholders were determined. The most influential stakeholders were interviewed, this information led to a set of feedstock-technological pathways. These pathways were further analyzed on local growth potential, from both a techno-economic as well as sustainability perspective. The report concluded with clear recommendations on the SAF supply chain development for the local government.

Qantas Study – Australia – 2013

Partners: Qantas, Shell, AltAir Fuels, Plant Cell Walls, SkyNRG and Solena

Description: Feasibility study of Australian feedstock and production capacity to produce sustainable aviation fuel

UK F4C Alcohol-to-Jet Project – United Kingdom – 2018

Partners: Virgin Atlantic, AccelorMittal, RSB, World Fuel Services, TATA Steel, London Heathrow Airport, London Gatwick Airport, PNNL, BP, Greenergy, Boeing, Ecofys, SkyNRG, ATSI, Petron scientech, Cerulogy

Description: Work towards the world’s first pre-commercial Alcohol to Jet demonstration facility and associated supply chain to provide commercially-relevant quantities of SAF to the UK aviation sector

Isobutanol platform – The Netherlands – 2014

Partners: Deltalinqs, AVR, E-on, GTBE company, Indorama, Port of Rotterdam, SkyNRG, Suiker Unie,

Description: Feasibility study for a supply chain producing SAF, Paraxylene and GTBE from sugars through an isobutanol intermediate.

Oskar Meijerink

Senior Project Lead