The start of each SAF batch is the feedstock. As the sustainable resource largely determines the overall sustainability performance of our fuels, it must meet very strict criteria. Currently, SkyNRG uses waste oils as its main resource. Of course, there is a limited supply so SkyNRG is also actively involved in projects developing alternative feedstocks (for HEFA) and different feedstock/ technology combinations.
The current SkyNRG supply chain
Today, SkyNRG has a focus on the downstream part of the supply chain. We have pioneered the SAF downstream supply chain in many different locations around the world. Since 2018 we have a partnership with Shell Aviation, to further increase the efficiency of our current and future supply chains to be able to serve all our customers in the best way possible.
Feedstocks and SAF production
In a bio-refinery renewable feedstock is aggregated and converted into SAF. All SAF delivered by SkyNRG to date has been produced using the HEFA technology, with sustainable resources, like waste oils. Next to HEFA, there are five other SAF production pathways approved for use in commercial aviation by the aviation OEMs (through the ASTM certification process). Please visit Technology to learn more about these different pathways.
Blending and certification
After the neat SAF is produced, it is certified to the ASTM D7566 specifications for neat alternative jet fuel. Once certified, it needs to be blended with conventional Jet A/A-1 fuel before it can be used in aviation. The final step is to certify the blended SAF to ASTM D7566 specifications for blended alternative jet fuel. Once certified, it automatically receives the Jet A/A-1 certificate and can then be handled and used as conventional fossil jet fuel.
Once the SAF is blended, it needs to be distributed to the airport where it will be used. Early SAF supply chains were completely segregated from existing jet fuel supply chains, so that specific aircraft could be fuelled with the SAF. This resulted in complex and expensive operations. Today, SkyNRG integrates the SAF into existing jet fuel supply chains as much as possible to minimize the additional operations and cost. A growing number of airports have already received our SAF into their commingled fuel system, including Los Angeles (LAX), San Francisco (SFO), and Oslo (OSL).
In case of an integrated downstream supply chain, SAF is delivered straight into the airport’s commingled fuel tank. The fuel is then distributed per standard operations, either via the hydrant system or per refueler trucks. This means that all aircrafts refueling at the airport physically receives part of the SAF. The SAF volume will however be allocated to the entity holding the SAF supply contract, and that entity may claim the benefits. This is done on a mass balance basis.
For segregated supply chains, the SAF arrives per dedicated fuel truck or other transport mode and is transferred into dedicated airport refueler trucks. This way, the SAF can be physically delivered to a specific aircraft. Although SkyNRG tries to push for integrated supply chains to optimize economics and impact, we can organize both types of supply chains.